The 2015 edition of
the U.S. dietary guidelines strongly recommends that you limit your intake of
sugar to 10% or less of your calories.
To this end, many
bakers have taken the lead in reducing the amount of sugar added. It's not as
easy as it sounds. Traditional sugar, also known as sucrose, is essential in
baking. It not only brings ideal sweetness, but also has many other important
functions in baked goods due to its unique chemical properties. For example, in
yeast fermentation products, sugar maintains yeast fermentation. In some
products, it can affect the gelatinization rate of starch, thus affecting the
shelf life, while in other aspects, the Maillard reaction involving sugar
produces ideal surface browning during baking and frying.
When reducing the
amount of sugar added to baked goods, high strength sweeteners are usually
combined with traditional sweeteners and / or fillers to obtain the best
sweetness and some other desired functions. High intensity sweeteners are much
sweeter than sucrose, so the same sweetness can be achieved in a small amount.
When using high-strength sweeteners in baked goods, the biggest challenge is to
ensure the balance of ingredients and provide the necessary texture and taste
while achieving the required sweetness.
of high strength sweeteners
At present, there
are eight high-strength sweeteners on the market -acesulfamic acid
(Acesulfame), aspartame, neotame, saccharin, cyclamate, sucralose, stevioside,
Siraitia grosvenorii extract- two of which (Siraitia grosvenorii and
stevioside) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredients and are
considered as natural sweeteners.
With the exception
of one, all of these high-intensity sweeteners are classified as nonnutritive,
which means they have very low or no calories at all. The only exception is
aspartame, which produces heat. But because aspartame is 200 times sweeter than
sucrose, it doesn't take much to achieve the required sweetness, so it usually
makes little contribution to the energy in the formula.
thermally unstable, its application in baked food is limited to the additives
after baking or frying, such as icing, filling and brightener.
artificial sweeteners are heat stable and can be used for baking and frying.
Saccharin has been used for the longest time. Saccharin, discovered in 1879, is
200 to 700 times sweeter than sucrose. In the early 1970s, laboratory studies
linked saccharin to tumorigenesis in rats, leading to mandatory warning labels
for products containing saccharin. Since then, more than 30 human studies have
shown that the results in rats are not relevant to humans, and saccharin is
safe to eat.
200 times sweeter than sugar and is often mixed with sucralose, which is 600
times sweeter than sugar. The blend can be used in baking.
Siraitia grosvenorii extract, two generally recognized safe (GRAS) high
strength sweeteners, are favored by many bakers for their reputation as natural
and clean labels. Both are based on plant extracts and have good thermal
better known. Stevioside is derived from the leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana
(stevioside) and is 200 to 400 times sweeter than sucrose. FDA has received
many generally recognized safety notices for the use of stevioside with high
purity (minimum purity 95%), including rebaudioside A (also known as REB a),
stevioside, rebaudioside D, and stevioside mixtures with REB A and / or
stevioside as the main components.
grosvenorii is another high strength sweetener generally recognized as safe.
The zero calorie sweetness of this tiny vine subtropical fruit comes from a
natural antioxidant called mogrosides, which is 300 times sweeter than sucrose.
sweetener to enter the market isallulose, which is a kind of monosaccharide
with almost no calories in nature. The ingredient gained gras status in 2015,
with the taste of sucrose and about 70% sweetness; Therefore, it is not a high
strength sweetener. Instead, it is considered a low calorie sugar because it
provides 90% less calories than full calorie sugar.
As a substance
existing in nature, a small amount of ALCONE exists in jackfruit, figs, raisins
and wheat, and naturally exists in some foods, such as caramel sauce, maple
syrup and brown sugar.allulosehas several health benefits. When ingested,
the body absorbs alloxan but does not metabolize it; Therefore, it will not be
converted into glucose, so its heat is not used by the human body, it is almost
caloric. Unlike other sugars with calories, alloxan does not affect blood
glucose and insulin levels.
maltitol are very popular in baked goods. Because these sweeteners are bulky,
they are often used in combination with high-strength sweeteners in baked goods
to achieve the right texture.
The sweetness of
erythritol is about 60% - 70% of sucrose, and the caloric content of each gram
of erythritol is 0 kcal. Erythritol is found naturally in fruits such as pears,
watermelons, grapes, mushrooms and fermented foods, including wine, soy sauce
and cheese. It has been generally recognized as safe since 2001, and this bulk
sweetener is very attractive for baked goods that claim to sell naturally.
Maltitol, on the
other hand, is sweeter (about 90% sweetness of sugar) and contains calories
(2.1 kcal / g). Many properties similar to sucrose make it popular in baked
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